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Differential effects of etomoxir treatment on cardiac Na+-K+ ATPase subunits in diabetic rats.
Kato K, Lukas A, Chapman DC, Rupp H, Dhalla NS.
Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences, St Boniface General Hospital Research Centre and Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.
Etomoxir, an inhibitor of mitochondrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1, is known to attenuate the changes in myosin isoforms and sarcoplasmic reticular function that occur in diabetic rat hearts. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that etomoxir also prevents the diabetes-induced depression of sarcolemmal (SL) Na+-K+ATPase activity by differentially affecting its alpha and beta-subunit levels. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes was associated with a decreased in alpha2-, alpha3-subunit levels, whereas the alpha1-and beta1-subunits were unchanged. Treatment of diabetic rats for 4 weeks with etomoxir (8 mg/kg/day) increased the alpha1-subunit levels, but failed to prevent the decrease in alpha2- and alpha3-subunit levels. In euglycemic control rats, etomoxir increased the alpha1-subunit protein level per g heart weight, but did not alter the alpha2-, alpha3- and beta1-subunit levels. The large decrease in Na+-K+ ATPase activity per g heart weight in diabetic rats was prevented by etomoxir, which suggests that the increased alpha1-subunit levels seen with this drug compensated for the decreased alpha2- and alpha3-subunit levels. The SL yield was also increased by etomoxir in euglycemic rats in proportion to the higher alpha1-subunit level, which resulted in an unchanged alpha1-content when expressed per mg SL protein; however, the alpha2- and beta1-subunit levels were reduced (p < 0.05). The depressed alpha2- and beta3 subunit levels of diabetic rats were associated with reduced mRNA abundance. However, no increase in alpha1-subunit mRNA abundance was seen in the etomoxir treated rats, which suggests that possibly post-transcriptional mechanisms are occurring in these hearts.
PMID: 12030380 [PubMed - in process]
[Functional genomics of pressure-loaded cardiomyocytes: etomoxir in heart failure?]
[Article in German]
Rupp H, Maisch B.
Klinik fur Innere Medizin-Kardiologie, Philipps-Universitat Marburg. Rupp@mailer.uni-marburg.de
BACKGROUND: Drugs for counteracting the neuroendocrine activation in heart failure can reduce the adverse remodelling of the extracellular matrix of the heart. Progression of heart failure can, however, often not be prevented and the question arises whether important pharmacological targets remain unidentified. Promising are drugs targeted at ventricular diastolic dysfunction which is a marker of early progression of heart failure. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY: Left ventricular dysfunction is characteristic of overloaded hypertrophied hearts with molecular structures that are not adapted to the increased Ca2+ diffusion distances. Thus, the Ca(2+)-pump (SERCA2) of sarcoplasmic reticulum is inadequately expressed leading to a reduced force development and relaxation of hypertrophied cardiomyocytes. ETOMOXIR: Drugs in development (CPT-1 inhibitor/PPARalpha activator) that increase glucose oxidation can enhance SERCA2 expression. The lead compound etomoxir had a selective influence on the contraction and relaxation rate of pressure-overloaded hearts. The functional parameters were correlated with the proportion of alpha-myosin heavy chains. Since viral or inflammatory injury of the heart can also induce a fetal phenotype, metabolic modulators such as etomoxir represent a promising therapeutic approach also for cardiomyopathies with inadequate SERCA2 expression.
PMID: 12025461 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Therapeutic potential of CPT I inhibitors: cardiac gene transcription as a target.
Zarain-Herzberg A, Rupp H.
Laboratorio de Biologia Molecular, Departamento de Bioquimica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-159, Mexico D.F. 04510. email@example.com
Inhibitors of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase I (CPT I), the key enzyme for the transport of long-chain acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) compounds into mitochondria, have been developed as agents for treating diabetes mellitus Type 2. Findings that the CPT I inhibitor, etomoxir, has effects on overloaded heart muscle, which are associated with an improved function, were unexpected and can be attributed to selective changes in the dysregulated gene expression of hypertrophied cardiomyocytes. Also, the first clinical trial with etomoxir in patients with heart failure showed that etomoxir improved the clinical status and several parameters of heart function. In view of the action of etomoxir on gene expression, putative molecular mechanisms involved in an increased expression of SERCA2, the Ca (2+) pump of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and alpha-myosin heavy chain (MHC) of failing overloaded heart muscle are described. The first 225 bp of human, rabbit, rat and mouse SERCA2 promoter sequence have high identity. Various cis-regularory elements are also given for the promoter of the rat cardiac alpha-MHC gene. It is hypothesised that etomoxir increases glucose-phosphate intermediates resulting in activation of signalling pathway(s) mediated by phosphatases. Regarding the possible direct action of etomoxir on peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPAR-alpha) activation, it could upregulate the expression of various enzymes that participate in beta-oxidation, thereby modulating some effects of CPT 1 inhibition. Any development of alternative drugs requires a better understanding of the signal pathways involved in the altered gene expression. In particular, signals need to be identified which are altered in overloaded hearts and can selectively be re-activated by etomoxir.
PMID: 11866664 [PubMed - in process]
Sarcoplasmic reticulum function and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 inhibition during progression of heart failure.
Rupp H, Vetter R.
Molecular Cardiology Laboratory, Department of Internal Medicine and Cardiology, Philipps University of Marburg, 35033 Marburg, Germany. Rupp@mailer.uni-marburg.de
Failing cardiac hypertrophy is associated with an inadequate sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) function. The hypothesis was examined that pressure overloaded hearts fail to increase SR Ca(2+) uptake rate proportionally to the hypertrophy and that carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 inhibition by etomoxir ((+/-)-ethyl 2[6(4-chlorophenoxy)hexyl] oxirane-2-carboxylate) can counteract this process. Severe left ventricular pressure overload was induced in rats by constricting the ascending aorta for 8, 10, 14 and 28 weeks leading to cardiac hypertrophy (+62 - +103% of sham-operated rats) and pulmonary congestion. Homogenate oxalate-facilitated SR Ca(2+) uptake rate g wet wt(-1) was reduced (P<0.05) by 29.9+/-1.8% irrespective of phospholamban phosphorylation (in the presence of catalytic subunit of protein kinase A) and inhibition of SR Ca(2+) release channel by ruthenium red. SERCA2 protein level was reduced (P<0.05) by 30.4+/-0.8%. SR Ca(2+) uptake rate was inversely correlated (P<0.05) with left ventricular weight but was not affected by the occurrence of pulmonary congestion. Because SR Ca(2+) uptake rate of whole ventricles was not reduced, a hypertrophy proportional dilution of SR Ca(2+) uptake has to be inferred which precedes pulmonary congestion. Treatment with etomoxir (15 mg kg body wt(-1) day(-1) for 10 weeks) did not affect left ventricular weight but decreased (P:<0.05) the right ventricular hypertrophy related to pulmonary congestion. In parallel, SR Ca(2+) uptake rate of left ventricle and myosin isozyme V(1) were increased (P<0.05). Etomoxir represents a candidate approach for prevention of heart failure by inducing a hypertrophy proportional increase in SR Ca(2+) uptake rate.
PMID: 11139455 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Transcriptional modulators targeted at fuel metabolism of hypertrophied heart.
Zarain-Herzberg A, Rupp H.
Departamento de Bioquimica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City.
The transition of nonfailing to failing cardiac hypertrophy cannot be prevented by current drug regimens. This investigation examined whether possible drug targets have remained unexplored because they do not result in acute improvement of heart function. Of major importance, in this respect, is an inadequate performance of the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA2). In the present approach, binding sequences within the proximal promoter of SERCA2 are described which may be useful in the development of drugs (i.e., transcriptional modulators) that interfere selectively with the transcription of genes of the cardiomyocyte. The proximal promoter region of the SERCA2 genes has a thyroid response element, 9 potential Sp1-binding sites (5'-GGGCGG-3', 5'-CCGCCC-3' and 5'-GGGAGG-3'), and an E-box motif (5'-CACATG-3'), which may function as glucose response elements. This region also has 2 putative fatty-acid response elements (5'-GGGGGA-3'). It is proposed that the beneficial effects of the camitine palmitoyltransferase-1 inhibitor etomoxir arise from a shift in fuel metabolism involving glucose response elements and/or peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptors. Although the relative contribution of these DNA regulatory elements remains to be defined, it appears that they provide the driving force that prevents the decrease in transcriptional activity of the SERCA2 gene in the hypertrophic heart. It is further concluded that etomoxir represents a member of a novel class of transcriptional modulators that improve function of hypertrophied hearts with unimpeded blood flow by modulating gene expression of the cardiomyocyte.
PMID: 10750584 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Subcellular remodeling and heart dysfunction in cardiac hypertrophy due to pressure overload.
Dhalla NS, Golfman L, Liu X, Sasaki H, Elimban V, Rupp H.
Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences, St. Boniface General Hospital Research Centre, Winnepeg, Manitoba, Canada.
Rats were treated with etomoxir, an inhibitor of palmitoyltransferase-1, to examine the role of a shift in myocardial metabolism in cardiac hypertrophy. Pressure overload was induced by abdominal aorta banding for 8 weeks. Sham-operated animals served as control. Left ventricular dysfunction, as reflected by decreased LVDP, +dP/dt, -dP/dt, and elevated LVEDP in the pressure overloaded animals, was improved by treatment with etomoxir. Cardiac hypertrophy in pressure-overload rats decreased the sarcoplasmic reticular (SR) Ca2+ uptake and Ca2+ release as well as myofibrillar Ca(2+)-stimulated ATPase and myosin Ca(2+)-ATPase activities; these changes were attenuated by treatment with etomoxir. Steady-state mRNA levels for alpha- and beta-myosin heavy chains, SR Ca(2+)-pump, and protein content of SR Ca(2+)-pump were reduced in hypertrophied hearts; these alterations were prevented by etomoxir treatment. The results indicate that modification of changes in myocardial metabolism by etomoxir may prevent remodeling of myofibrils and SR membrane and thereby improve cardiac function in hypertrophied heart.
PMID: 10415524 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Modification of left ventricular hypertrophy by chronic etomixir treatment.
Turcani M, Rupp H.
Institute of Physiology II, University of Tubingen, Germany.
1. Etomoxir (2[6(4-chlorophenoxy)hexyl]oxirane-2-carboxylate), an irreversible carnitine palmitoyl-transferase 1 inhibitor, reduces the expression of the myocardial foetal gene programme and the functional deterioration during heart adaption to a pressure-overload. Etomoxir may, however, also improve the depressed myocardial function of hypertrophied ventricles after a prolonged pressure overload. 2. To test this hypothesis, we administered racemic etomoxir (15 mg kg(-1) day(-1) for 6 weeks) to rats with ascending aortic constriction beginning 6 weeks after imposing the pressure overload. 3. The right ventricular/body weight ratio increased (P<0.05) by 20% in etomoxir treated rats (n = 10) versus untreated rats with ascending aortic constriction (n = 10). Left ventricular weight was increased (P<0.05) by 8%. Etomoxir blunted the increase in left ventricular chamber volume. Etomoxir raised the proportion of V1 isomyosin (35+/-4% versus 24+/-2%; P<0.05) and decreased the percentage of V3 isomyosin (36+/-4% versus 48+/-3%; P<0.05). 4. Maximum isovolumically developed pressure was higher in etomoxir treated rats than in untreated pressure overloaded rats (371+/-22 versus 315+/-23 mmHg; P<0.05). Maximum rates of ventricular pressure development (14,800+/-1310 versus 12,340+/-1030mmHg s(-1); P<0.05) and decline (6440+/-750 versus 5040+/-710 mmHg s(-1); P<0.05) were increased as well. Transformation of pressure values to ventricular wall stress data revealed an improved myocardial function which could partially account for the enhanced function of the whole left ventricle. 5. The co-ordinated action of etomoxir on ventricular mass, geometry and myocardial phenotype enhanced thus the pressure generating capacity of hypertrophied pressure-overloaded left ventricles and delayed the deleterious dilative remodelling.
PMID: 10077244 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Alterations of heart function and Na+-K+-ATPase activity by etomoxir in diabetic rats.
Kato K, Chapman DC, Rupp H, Lukas A, Dhalla NS.
Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences, St. Boniface General Hospital Research Centre, and Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada R2H 2A6.
To examine the role of changes in myocardial metabolism in cardiac dysfunction in diabetes mellitus, rats were injected with streptozotocin (65 mg/kg body wt) to induce diabetes and were treated 2 wk later with the carnitine palmitoyltransferase inhibitor (carnitine palmitoyltransferase I) etomoxir (8 mg/kg body wt) for 4 wk. Untreated diabetic rats exhibited a reduction in heart rate, left ventricular systolic pressure, and positive and negative rate of pressure development and an increase in end-diastolic pressure. The sarcolemmal Na+-K+-ATPase activity was depressed and was associated with a decrease in maximal density of binding sites (Bmax) value for high-affinity sites for [3H]ouabain, whereas Bmax for low-affinity sites was unaffected. Treatment of diabetic animals with etomoxir partially reversed the depressed cardiac function with the exception of heart rate. The high serum triglyceride and free fatty acid levels were reduced, whereas the levels of glucose, insulin, and 3,3',-5-triiodo-L-thyronine were not affected by etomoxir in diabetic animals. The activity of Na+-K+-ATPase expressed per gram heart weight, but not per milligram sarcolemmal protein, was increased by etomoxir in diabetic animals. Furthermore, Bmax (per g heart wt) for both low-affinity and high-affinity binding sites in control and diabetic animals was increased by etomoxir treatment. Etomoxir treatment also increased the depressed left ventricular weight of diabetic rats and appeared to increase the density of the sarcolemma and transverse tubular system to normalize Na+-K+-ATPase activity. Therefore, a shift in myocardial substrate utilization may represent an important signal for improving the depressed cardiac function and Na+-K+-ATPase activity in diabetic rat hearts with impaired glucose utilization.
PMID: 10066690 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Etomoxir improves left ventricular performance of pressure-overloaded rat heart.
Turcani M, Rupp H.
Institute of Pathophysiology, Medical School, Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovak Republic. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have demonstrated diverse abnormalities in subcellular structures of pressure-overloaded hypertrophied and failing heart. Long-term administration of etomoxir, a carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 inhibitor, partially normalized the proportion of myosin isozyme V1 and number of active Ca2+ pumps in hypertrophied rat myocardium. METHODS AND RESULTS: To test the hypothesis that long-term etomoxir treatment improves the performance of hypertrophied ventricle, sham-operated rats and rats with ascending aorta constriction were treated with racemic etomoxir (15 mg/kg per day) for 12 weeks. Left ventricular geometry, dynamics of isovolumic contractions, as well as myosin isozymes as marker of etomoxir-induced phenotype changes were assessed. Etomoxir stimulated (P<.05) slight hypertrophic growth in right and left ventricles of sham-operated rats as well as in right ventricles but not in overloaded left ventricles of rats with aortic constriction. In all treated rats, etomoxir increased (P<.05) maximal developed pressure, left ventricular pressure-volume area, and +/- dP/dt(max). Enhanced values (P<.05) of derived indexes of myocardial performance (normalized stress-length area, maximal rate of wall stress rise, and decline) indicated that myocardial changes were responsible for the improved performance. The etomoxir treatment increased selectively (P<.05) the proportion of myosin V1 in pressure-overloaded left ventricles. CONCLUSIONS: The long-term treatment with etomoxir improved functional capacity of pressure-overloaded left ventricle, which can be attributed to an enhanced myocardial performance. Chronic carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 inhibition may thus represent a candidate approach for developing novel agents that are useful in the prevention of undesirable consequences of pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy.
PMID: 9396471 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Modification of sarcoplasmic reticulum gene expression in pressure overload cardiac hypertrophy by etomoxir.
Zarain-Herzberg A, Rupp H, Elimban V, Dhalla NS.
Division of Cardiovascular Sciences, St. Boniface General Hospital Research Centre, Manitoba, Canada.
Pressure overload on the heart is known to produce hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes and distinct changes in protein phenotype, including reduced expression of the gene for the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ATPase (SERCA2). In this study we have shown that the decrease in SERCA2 gene expression (normalized by poly(A)+ mRNA or 18 S rRNA) in rats with 8 wk of aortic constriction was prevented by treatment with etomoxir, an inhibitor of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1. The reduction in steady-state mRNA levels for SR phospholamban (PLP) and Ca2+ release channel (CRC) in the pressure-overloaded animals was also prevented without any reduction in the extent of cardiac hypertrophy by treatment with etomoxir. Although no changes in mRNA levels for GAPDH were evident in rats with pressure overload, the expression of the alpha-skeletal actin was increased; this change was prevented by etomoxir. Similar beneficial effects of etomoxir treatment were also evident when the gene expression for SR SERCA2, PLP, and CRC in the hypertrophied heart was normalized with respect to mRNA for GAPDH. These results support the view that drugs such as etomoxir may increase the abundance of the mRNA for SR proteins in the hypertrophied heart and thus may prevent the transition of cardiac hypertrophy into heart failure.
PMID: 8836044 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Dietary medium-chain triglycerides can prevent changes in myosin and SR due to CPT-1 inhibition by etomoxir.
Rupp H, Schulze W, Vetter R.
Molecular Cardiology, Laboratory, University of Marburg, Germany.
To define determinants of subcellular structures of heart, Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were treated for 5 wk with 15 mg.kg-1.day-1 etomoxir [reduces mitochondrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1) activity and fatty acid synthesis]. To bypass CPT-1 inhibition, etomoxir-treated rats were fed a medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA) diet. Etomoxir induced a proportionate growth of heart, which could partially (WKY, P < 0.05) or completely (SHR, P < 0.05) be prevented by the MCFA diet. Also the etomoxir-induced increase in myosin V1 was partially prevented (P < 0.05). Etomoxir increased (P < 0.05) rate of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ uptake of WKY and SHR ventricular homogenates in the presence or absence of the SR Ca2+ release inhibitor ruthenium red. The MCFA diet resulted in SR Ca2+ uptake rates that were in between those of etomoxir-treated and untreated rats. The in vitro 32P incorporation into phospholamban and troponin I did not differ significantly in WKY. Etomoxir induced, however, an increase (P < 0.05) in the phosphorylated intermediate of the Ca2+ adenosinetriphosphatase in WKY that was prevented by the MCFA diet. In SHR, etomoxir increased the in vitro phospholamban phosphorylation, which was reduced compared with WKY. The data show that myosin and SR are affected by a chronically altered substrate utilization of heart.
PMID: 7573566 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Differential influences of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 inhibition and hyperthyroidism on cardiac growth and sarcoplasmic reticulum phosphorylation.
Vetter R, Kott M, Rupp H.
Max Delbruck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin-Buch, Germany.
To characterize interventions resulting in 'physiological' growth of the heart, Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) had hyperthyroidism induced (0.05 mg.kg-1.day-1 triiodothyronine for 6 days) or were treated with a high dose of the carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 inhibitor, etomoxir (15 mg.kg-1.day-1 for 5 weeks). Etomoxir increased cardiac growth evenly, but hyperthyroidism resulted in an over-proportional higher right ventricular weight. Both interventions increased the proportion of the myosin isozyme V1. The rate of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ uptake was increased to a greater extent in hyperthyroid rats than in etomoxir-treated rats (P < 0.05). Left ventricular levels of immunoreactive phospholamban (semiquantitative ELISA) were moderately decreased (P < 0.05) in hyperthyroid rats but not in etomoxir-treated rats. The protein kinase A-catalyzed in vitro 32P-incorporation into the SR Ca2+ pump modulator phospholamban was greatly reduced (P < 0.05) in hyperthyroid rats, indicating an increased in vivo phosphorylation. Etomoxir did not affect phospholamban phosphorylation in WKY rats. Thus, both a higher in vivo phospholamban phosphorylation state and a greater number of active Ca2+ pumps contributed to an increased rate of SR Ca2+ uptake in hyperthyroidism. The etomoxir treatment primarily increased the number of active Ca2+ pumps. A scheme is proposed focusing on long-term vs short-term regulation of the SR Ca2+ pump/phospholamban system in diseased states.
PMID: 7556265 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
CPT-1 inhibition by etomoxir has a chamber-related action on cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum and isomyosins.
Vetter R, Rupp H.
Max Delbruck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin-Buch, Germany.
To characterize the effect of an altered substrate utilization for cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ transport, normotensive rats were treated for 5 wk with 15 mg.kg-1.day-1 enantiomeric etomoxir, which inhibits mitochondrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1) and fatty acid synthesis. Ca2+ uptake rates of left and right ventricular homogenates were differentially (P < 0.05, two-way analysis of variance) increased by 38 and 13%, respectively. Increased (P < 0.05) transport rates were also observed in the presence of ryanodine. The differences were considerably reduced in the protein kinase A-stimulated state. The levels of phosphorylated phospholamban (PLB) and troponin I as well as immunoreactive PLB were not affected. By contrast, phosphoenzyme levels (E-P) of the SR Ca2+ pump were increased in left ventricular (LV) homogenates. Values of LV E-P and Ca2+ uptake were linearly correlated (P < 0.05) with the myosin V1 proportions in control (31.7 +/- 1.8% V1) and treated (58.3 +/- 2.5% V1) rats. Thus in the left ventricle the metabolic influences have a coordinated action on two distinct proteins involved in relaxation or contraction. The chamber-specific differences in SR function suggest a more pronounced effect of etomoxir in functional states characterized by a reduced Ca2+ transport rate and myosin V1 proportion.
PMID: 7810710 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Modification of myosin isozymes and SR Ca(2+)-pump ATPase of the diabetic rat heart by lipid-lowering interventions.
Rupp H, Elimban V, Dhalla NS.
Division of Cardiovascular Sciences, St. Boniface General Hospital Research Centre, Winnipeg, Canada.
To define metabolic influences on cardiac myosin expression and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+)-stimulated ATPase streptozotocin-diabetic rats were treated for 9-10 wk with etomoxir, an inhibitor of carnitine palmitoyl transferase I (CPT-1) and fatty acid synthesis, or an antilipolytic drug, acipimox. Etomoxir reduced myosin V3 of diabetic rats but did not normalize it. However, the high serum triglyceride, free-fatty acid and cholesterol concentrations in diabetic animals were greatly reduced. After bypassing the CPT-1 inhibition with a medium-chain fatty acid (miglyol) diet, the V3 contents and serum lipids were still reduced in the etomoxir-treated diabetic rats; V3 was also reduced in diabetic rats fed miglyol or treated with acipimox. Since low serum insulin or triiodothyronine concentrations in diabetic rats were not improved by these interventions but changes in V3 were correlated with those in triglyceride, free-fatty acid and cholesterol concentrations, it is likely that myosin may be influenced by some metabolic factors. To assess the role of adrenergic influences, diabetic rats (7-8 wk) were treated with an antisympathotonic drug, moxonidine, a beta-adrenoceptor blocking drug, propranolol, and a bradycardic drug, tedisamil. Myosin V3 was not reduced significantly in moxonidine-treated or propranolol-treated rats in comparison to untreated diabetic rats. Serum thyroid hormones and insulin were not altered, whereas triglycerides were reduced but not significantly by these antiadrenergic agents. Lowering serum lipids in diabetic rats by treatment with etomoxir, miglyol and acipimox increased the depressed SR Ca(2+)-stimulated ATPase activity. On the other hand, in diabetic rats treated with moxonidine, propranolol or tedisamil, the ATPase activity was not increased significantly. These results suggest that normalization of blood lipids is important for improving subcellular organelle function in diabetic hearts with impaired glucose utilization.
PMID: 8078510 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Paradoxical role of lipid metabolism in heart function and dysfunction.
Dhalla NS, Elimban V, Rupp H.
Division of Cardiovascular Sciences, St. Boniface General Hospital Research Centre, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.
The heart utilizes fatty acids as a substrate in preference to glucose for the production of energy. The rate of fatty acid uptake and oxidation by heart muscle is controlled by the availability of exogenous fatty acids, the rate of acyl translocation across the mitochondrial membrane and the rate of acetyl-CoA oxidation by the citric acid cycle. Carnitine acyl-CoA transferase appears to have an important function in coupling the fatty acid activation and acyl transfer to the oxidative phosphorylation. Activated fatty acids are also utilized for the synthesis of triglycerides and membrane phospholipids in the myocardium. The inhibition of long chain acyl-carnitine transferase I reduces the oxidation of fatty acids and promotes the synthesis of lipids in the myocardium. Accumulation of fatty acids and their metabolites such as long chain acyl-CoA and long chain acyl-carnitine has been associated with cardiac dysfunction and cell damage in both ischemic and diabetic hearts. Alterations in the composition of membrane phospholipids are also considered to change the activities of various membrane bound enzymes and subsequently heart function under different pathophysiological conditions. Chronic diabetes was found to be associated with increased plasma lipids, subcellular defects and cardiac dysfunction. Lowering the plasma lipids or reducing the oxidation of fatty acids by agents such as etomoxir, an inhibitor of palmitoylcarnitine transferase I was found to promote glucose utilization and remodel the subcellular membranous organelles in the heart.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
PMID: 1480151 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Metabolically-modulated growth and phenotype of the rat heart.
Rupp H, Jacob R.
Institute of Physiology II, University of Tubingen, Germany.
Heart muscle reacts to work overload and various neuroendocrine stimuli by inducing myocyte growth. A novel type of hypertrophy can be induced in the rat heart by etomoxir, which reduces fatty acid oxidation. This hypoglycaemic drug inhibits the mitochondrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1, and thus reduces the long-chain fatty acid uptake of mitochondria; in a compensatory manner, the glycolytic flux is enhanced. In rats, etomoxir induced a harmonious growth of the left and right ventricles of normal and pressure-overloaded hearts. To characterize the protein phenotype, myosin expression and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ pump activity were determined. In contrast to pressure-overloaded hearts, etomoxir increased the proportion of myosin V1, Ca(2+)-stimulated SR ATPase activity and the rate of SR Ca2+ uptake. Since etomoxir did not increase blood pressure, heart rate or circulating thyroid hormones, it appears that established mechanisms of other models of cardiac hypertrophy were not involved. The etomoxir-induced changes thus seem closely linked to the shift in energy metabolism.
PMID: 1396861 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Modification of subcellular organelles in pressure-overloaded heart by etomoxir, a carnitine palmitoyltransferase I inhibitor.
Rupp H, Elimban V, Dhalla NS.
Division of Cardiovascular Sciences, St. Boniface General Hospital Research Centre, Winnipeg, Canada.
To examine the signals regulating cardiac growth and molecular structure of subcellular organelles, cardiac hypertrophy was induced in rats by constriction of the abdominal aorta for 12-13 wk or by treatment with a carnitine palmitoyltransferase I inhibitor, etomoxir (12-15 mg/kg body wt) for 12-13 wk. In contrast to pressure overload, etomoxir redistributed the myosin isozyme population from V3 to V1 and increased the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+)-stimulated ATPase activity. When rats with pressure-overloaded hearts were treated with etomoxir, the cardiac hypertrophy was increased whereas the shift in myosin isozymes from V1 to V3 was prevented and the depression in SR Ca(2+)-stimulated ATPase activity was reversed. Plasma thyroid hormone and insulin concentrations were not altered but triglyceride concentrations were reduced in etomoxir-treated rats with pressure overload. The data demonstrate a dissociation between cardiac muscle growth and changes in subcellular organelles and indicate that a shift in myocardial substrate utilization may represent an important signal for molecular remodeling of the heart.
PMID: 1531968 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Influence of diet and carnitine palmitoyltransferase I inhibition on myosin and sarcoplasmic reticulum.
Rupp H, Wahl R, Hansen M.
Institute of Physiology II, University of Tubingen, Federal Republic of Germany.
To examine the role of metabolic signals for ventricular myosin expression and activity of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ pump, Wistar rats were treated for 7-8 wk with 5 or 50 mg/kg etomoxir, which inhibits fatty acid utilization. The proportion of myosin V1 was increased (P less than 0.05) with 50 mg/kg etomoxir (75 +/- 5% vs. 62 +/- 6% of control rats), whereas both doses increased the rate of Ca2+ uptake. A carbohydrate-rich fat-free diet or 8% sucrose drinking solutions, however, had no effect on myosin and sarcoplasmic reticulum. When rats were fed diets with an increased content (10 or 20%) of sunflower oil, the calorie intake and myosin V1 increased (56 +/- 8 or 64 +/- 8% vs. 44 +/- 6% of control rats). Isocaloric 10% fat diets of varying fatty acid composition (coconut fat, olive oil, or mackerel oil) also induced a higher calorie intake and increased V1 (64 +/- 6, 60 +/- 9, or 65 +/- 8% for the respective oils vs. 44 +/- 6% of control rats) but did not significantly increase rate of Ca2+ uptake. We concluded that calorie-rich diets changed the myosin expression not by affecting the ratio of fatty acid to glucose utilization but via the increased calorie intake.
PMID: 1537736 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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